ACS Continuation Course presented by*

Eugene Garfield, Documentation Consultant


(*One lecture will be presented by Dr. Charles Bernier of Chemical Abstracts)


The exponential increase in the volume of recorded chemical information, combined with its inherent complexities, requires new techniques for handling data. Modern documentation is concerned with every phase of handling scientific documents--their creation, publication, dissemination, reproduction, classification, and retrieval. Mechanical documentation is applicable in each of these, but particularly in retrieval. Through a series of lecture-demonstrations, the principal areas of modern chemical documentation will be covered in an elementary fashion as an introduction to a more detailed presentation of mechanical systems for retrieving chemical data. Conventional classification systems will be examined to reveal their inability to cope with the multi-dimensional character of research information. The course is designed primarily for the scientist’ interested in or requiring new techniques for handling large masses of data or those interested in the unlimited employment opportunities presently available to the documentation scientist. However, the course will also be helpful to management interested in developing research intelligence activities through effective documentation.

I.     Basic Concepts in Documentation: from documentation to industrial and research     intelligence.

II.     Classification and Indexing Systems: from Aristotle to Bliss.

III.     Nomenclature and Notation: from symbols ,to ciphers.

IV.     Introduction to Mechanical Documentation: from accounting machines to chemical biological correlation.

V.     Abstracting and Indexing of Chemical Literature: Dr. Charles Bernier, Indexing Editor of Chemical Abstracts.

VI.     Mechanical Documentation: machine functions and operating principles. Advanced Punched-Card Techniques and Coding Systems: from decimal to binary; from randomness to order

VIII. Electronic Computers and Searching Machines: from Univac to Memex.

IX.    Design of Machine Coding Systems: from documents to data.

X.     Document Reproduction Equipment: from silver ions to selenium charges.



A series of ten lectures organized and presented by Mr. Eugene Garfield*

I. Basic Concepts in Documentation

a. The role of documentation in industrial and research intelligence

b. Defining documentation, intelligence, communication, library science, automation, mechanization, collection, dissemination, storage, creation, retrieval, evaluation, coding) indexing, abstracting, cataloging, classification, reproduction, transmission, distribution.

c. The purposes of documentation and the statistical nature of scientific information.

d. Levels of information--facts, ideas, and informational bits.

e. The historical background to documentation.

f. The documentation cycle and the intelligence organization chart.

    II. Classification and Indexing Systems
                        a. Conventional systems--alphabetic and/or classified

                            1.    Chemical Abstracts
                            2.    Beilstein
                            3.    Current List of Medical Literature
                            4.    Biological Abstracts
                            5.    U.S. Patent OFfice

                        b. Multi-dimensional systems
                            1.     Facet analysis -- Blis and Ranganathan]
                            2.     Facet analysis -- Bliss and Ranganathan
                            3.     Hierarchial vs unilateral classification
                                    Generic vs. specific searches

    III. Nomenclature and Notation
                            1.    The linguistic basis of science
                            2.    Subject heading analysis
                            3.    Systematic nomenclature
                                    a.     Chemical Abstracts
                                    b.     Geneva System
                                    c.     A.M.A. Standard Nomenclature of Diseases
                                    d.     W.H.O. Classification of Diseases
                            4.    Notation (ciphering) systems
                                    a.    Conventional line formulas
                                    b.    Gordon-Kendall-Davison
                                    c.    Wiswesser
                                    d.    Dyson

    IV.  Introduction to Mechanical Documentation
                            1.    The Chemical-Biological Coordination Center System and Code
                            2.    IBM (Hollerith) equipment
                                    a.    Hollerith card
                                    b.    Key-punch and verifier
                                    c.    Sorter, collator, reproducer, interpreter, tabulator

                            3.    Definitions and examples of mechanical indexing, mechanical
                                    searching, and preparation of indexes by machine.

    V.  Abstracting and Indexing of Chemical Literature -- Dr. Charles Bernier
                            1.    Necessity for abstracting and indexing services
                            2.    Abstracting rules and requirements and indexing services
                            3.    Benefits of abstracting to abstractors
                            4.    Classification of abstracts in abstracting publications
                            5.    Importance of adequate indexes to abstracting publications
                            6.    Types of indexes -- actual and possible
                            7.    Indexing as a profession
                            8.    Use of abstracts and indexes
                            9.    Mechanization Mechanical Documentation

    VI.  Mechanical Documentation
                            1.    Machine functions
                                    a.    Key-punching, gang punching, reproducing, and interspersed punching
                                    b.    Sorting -- numerical, alphabetic, and selective
                                    c.    Collating -- matching, merging, and sequence checking
                                    d.    Counting and computing
                                    e.    Printing and interpreting
                            2.    Operating principles of punched-card equipment
                                    a.    Reading brushes
                                    b.    Selector relays
                                    c.    Emitters
                                    d.    Wiring panels
                            3.    #101 Statistical Punched-Card Machine
                                    a.    Principles of operation
                                    b.    Standard sorting problems
                            4.    Simple coding systems -- direct codes

    VII.    Advanced Punched-Card Techniques and Coding Systems
                            1.    Coding Systems
                                    a.    Alpha-numeric
                                    b.    Decimal -- fixed field and floating field
                                    c.    Superimposed and random
                                    d.    Binary

                            2.    Selective Sorting (searching)
                                    a.    Multiple-column selectors
                                    b.    #101 ESM wiring
                                            1.    Normal
                                            2.    Superimposed wiring
                                            3.    Complementary searching -- Luhn Machine Analog
                                            4.    Recode hold operations

    VIII.    Electronic  Computers and Searching Machines
                            1.    Computers
                                    a.    Basic computer units and operations
                                    b.    IBM 700 series
                                    c.    Remington-Rand Univac
                                    d.    Programming a search problem on Univac
                                    e.    Shortcomings of computers for searching
                                    f.    Visit to a Univac installation is planned

                            2.    Film searching machines
                                    a.    Filmsort cards - Dexter
                                    b.    Filmorex -- Samain
                                    c.    Minicard -- Kodak
                                    d.    Rapid Selector -- Bush-Shaw
                                    e.    AMFIS (Automatic Microfilm Selector) - Avakian

                            3.    Miscellaneous machines now in development

    IX.    Design of Machine Coding Systems
                            1.    Collection and screening of documents
                            2.`   Sampling of text and vocabulary analysis
                            3.    Frequency analysis
                            4.    Informational requirments
                            5.    Selection of coding systems
                            6.    Design of code sheets and cards
                            7.    Testing and evaluation of preliminary searches
                            8.    Modicication of dictionary, codes, and code sheets
                            9.    Utilization of retrieval system
                            10.   Evaluation of retrieved documents

    X.  Document Reproduction Equipment
                            1.    Photographic
                            2.    Diazo
                            3.    Thermal
                            4.    Xerographic
                            5.    Electrosensitive

Models of each type machine will be demonstrated